To get acquainted with the history of the holiday, and also to learn about how Fire Protection Day 2020 will be celebrated in our country, a review filled with many interesting, and sometimes surprising, facts will help.
History of the founding of the fire brigade in Russia
According to reliable historical documents, the date of foundation of the first fire service in the Russian state is April 30, 1649. It was on this day that Emperor Alexei Romanov issued the “Order on the City Deanery,” one of the points of which was the decision to create a special department to prevent and extinguish fires in Moscow.
In addition to a detailed description of the powers of the newly formed fire service, this document spoke of the need to form special fire patrols, the presence of fire extinguishing agents in municipal buildings and the introduction of strict criminal liability for arson and careless handling of fire.
In 1823, the permanent staff of the Moscow Fire Department was approved, and in 1857 the first fire charter in the history of the state was issued, providing for:
- new rules for organizing round-the-clock fire patrols;
- the presence of a special form and insignia for employees of the department;
- equipping fire stations with telegraph, telephone and other operational means of communication.
Attempts to solve the problem of fires at the legislative level were made in Russia in subsequent years. The most significant steps in the fire protection sphere were taken during the reign of Emperor Nicholas I. At the initiative of the autocrat, the capital’s service received fire trucks manufactured by the Frese and Co. factory equipped with water pumps, alarms and other modern (at that time) equipment.
In addition, mass production of fire fighting equipment was organized in St. Petersburg and Moscow (in 1904), including special equipment (water pumps, folding ladders) and other devices for use in domestic conditions. At the same time, the first foam fire extinguisher in the country was developed and tested in Russia.
The fire organization did not remain without government attention during the Great October Revolution. With the coming to power of the Bolsheviks (in 1918), Vladimir Lenin signed the state decree "On the organization of emergency measures to combat fire." In the aforementioned document, not only a detailed scheme of fire-fighting measures was clearly indicated, but also a multi-year training program for professional specialists in fire-technical schools and schools was developed.
Infrastructure and fire safety system in the Russian Federation
The fire service of Russia is in demand today. Today it is an integral part of the structure of the Ministry of Emergencies and, according to statistics, prevents up to 450 fires per day arising in both the residential and municipal sectors. The arsenal of domestic fire fighters includes ultra-modern cars, transportation helicopters, all-terrain vehicles, multifunctional robotic systems and unmanned aerial vehicles capable of performing tasks of any complexity.
One of the latest legislative acts relating to the activities and powers of the modern fire service in Russia is Federal Law No. 172, according to which the federal, municipal or subject departments of the fire department are the first to enter the fight for the lives of people caught in the fire in the immediate vicinity of the place of spread of fire.
How many celebrate Fire Day in 2020?
As an official professional holiday, Firefighter Day in Russia was approved in 1999. The decision was initiated by the government of the Russian Federation, headed by President Boris Yeltsin. The apogee of this initiative was the state decree signed by the head of the Russian government on April 30, 1999.
The date of the establishment of the holiday was dated for the previously mentioned historical event, which is the birthday of the fire service of the Russian state. Recall that it was on April 30, 1649 that the Emperor of Russia Alexei Romanov signed the “Order on the Grade Deanery” - an official document regulating the work of the city and county fire watch of the country.
The date of the celebration is fixed. Thus, in 2020, the employees of the fire departments of Russia will celebrate their professional holiday on April 30, on Tuesday. Despite the fact that the holiday is not a day off, the working hours of state institutions will be reduced by exactly one hour.
"Knights without fear and reproach": a few words about the profession of a fireman
From ancient times fire frightened people with its rebellion and unbridled disposition. That is why the profession of fireman at all times was considered not only courageous, but also respected among the people. And this is absolutely justified, because in addition to professional skills, a fire officer must have a whole list of personal qualities, the most important of which are courage, self-discipline and self-control.
Before entering the service in one of the fire departments of Russia, the applicant for the position is required to undergo not only many years of training at the university and “high school” on the “battlefields” with flame, but also to prove himself as a reliable and fearless partner, on whom you can rely entirely on difficult times.
A fire fighter is required not only to possess a wealth of professional knowledge in the field of fire fighting, but also to be a qualified specialist in handling complex technical equipment, various types of gas masks, as well as master all methods of rescuing and evacuating people from a fire ignition area.
Taking into account all of the above factors, we can only make the right conclusion - the profession of a fireman is not just ordinary work in the usual sense of the word, it is a special way of life that requires a person to be constantly ready to provide emergency assistance to those who need it.
Holiday traditions: what events will be held in Russia on Fire Day?
Like most professional holidays with a long history, Fire Day has its own traditions. Perhaps the main one is corporate events that are held annually in honor of the best employees of fire organizations. On the day of the celebration, representatives of the top management of the Ministry of Emergencies of the Russian Federation reward distinguished employees with honorary diplomas, prizes, badges and medals, and those who showed special courage during special operations are promoted.
At the level of cities and regions in honor of firefighters, gala concerts are organized with the participation of local heads of administrations, creative groups and famous Russian artists. Holiday greetings also sound on television channels, in the program of which you can often see documentaries and feature films dedicated to brave fire fighters.
Holiday actions in Moscow: how are firefighters honored in the Kremlin?
The most striking and large-scale events dedicated to the holiday are held in the capital of Russia. Every year on April 30, colorful themed exhibitions, flash mobs and mass charity events are held on the streets and squares of the “white stone”, in which both Muscovites themselves and numerous guests of the metropolis take part with pleasure. Particularly noteworthy are well-organized spectacular master classes, during which experienced fire department instructors demonstrate to the citizens professional skills in handling fire equipment, rules of conduct during a fire and first aid for victims of fire and carbon monoxide.
However, this is not all. The central event of the holiday in Moscow is the solemn annual event, which takes place at the State Kremlin Palace. It is here that in honor of the heroes of the occasion, sincere congratulations and warm words are heard from the lips of famous politicians, public figures and, of course, the President of the Russian Federation, from whose hands the best firefighters of Russia receive high government awards.
Interesting facts from everyday domestic fire protection:
- The first fire truck in Russia was produced in 1904 by the Frese & K factory. The car accommodated up to 10 people and developed a speed of up to 15 km / h.
- Coming to replace, Russian firefighters wish each other "dry sleeves"! (Note: "dry sleeves" by firefighters means no fires).
- According to the charter, in the event of an alarm, the firefighter must prepare for departure in 60 seconds.
- The tank of a standard fire truck is designed for 2400 liters of water.
- The most flammable plant growing in our country is the flower of a grassy white ash tree (wild anise). The leaves of this plant contain the highest concentration of essential oils among representatives of the flora.
Beautiful congratulations on Fire Day: